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Framework源码深入分析www.2527.com

2019-05-17 12:52 来源:未知

1.csrf校验:

权限的项目

        (1)用户是还是不是有访问有个别api的权位

        (二)用户对于同样的api分裂权限看到不一样的数码(其实多少个filter)

        (叁)不一致权限用户对于api的造访频次,其余限制等等

        (四)假删除,各样级联假删除


Requests passed to the handler methods will be REST framework'sRequestinstances, not Django'sHttpRequestinstances.

 def get_authenticators(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of authenticators that this view can use.
        """
        return [auth() for auth in self.authentication_classes] #列表生成式返回认证类的对象列表

指标级其他权限

        大家盼望保有的代码片段对任何人都可见,但也确认保证唯有创设代码片段的用户能够立异或删除它。为了促成那么些,大家须要创设一个自定义权限

在snippets.app中,创制三个新的文件,名叫permissions.py

from  rest_framework  import  permissions

classIsOwnerOrReadOnly(permissions.BasePermission):

        def  has_object_permission(self, request, view, obj):

        "

        读取权限对其余的request都适用,接下去就要增加GET,HEAD,OPTIONS请求权限

        ''

                if request.method in permissions.SAFE_METHODS:

                        return  True

                return  obj.owner == request.user


        今后大家在SnippetDetail view中通过编写制定permission_classes属性为snippet实例中加多自定义的权柄

        permission_classes = (permissions.IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnly, IsOwnerOrReadOnly,)

Dispatch methods

fbv:

将代码段与用户关联

        今后,假设大家创设了代码段,就不或者将创建代码段的用户与代码段实例相关联。用户不作为连串化表示的一有个别发送,而是传入请求的天性。

        我们管理它的法子是由此在大家的代码片段视图上覆盖贰个perform_create()方法,允许我们修改实例保存的章程,并拍卖在传播请求或请求的UCR-VL中隐含的其它新闻。

        在大家SnippetList 视图类中,增加上面的方法

    def perform_create(self, serializer):

            serializer.save(owner=self.request.user)

当大家的serializer里create()方法被调用时,将自行增添owner字段和注脚合法的请求数据


If you need to customize the error responses your API returns you should subclass this method.

8.self.get_authenticators()源码深入分析,选取列表生成式,循环self.authentication_classes,实例化个中的每3个类,再次回到列表,轻易开掘authentication_classes属性正式大家在认证的时候用到表明类列表,这里会活动检索该属性进行求证。要是大家的视图类未有定义表达格局吧?,当然django rest framework 已经给大家加了暗许配置,假如大家并未有定义会自行使用settings中的DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES作为默许(全局)上面是APIView类中的共有属性:

增加用户消息在我们的models中

owner = models.ForeignKey('auth.User', related_name='snippets', on_delete=models.CASCADE)


AnyAPIExceptionexceptions will be caught and mediated into appropriate responses.

    def initialize_request(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Returns the initial request object.
        """
        parser_context = self.get_parser_context(request)

        return Request(      #实例化Request类,
            request,         #django原始的request对象,封装到Request中变成self._request  
            parsers=self.get_parsers(),
            authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),  #开始认证流程
            negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
            parser_context=parser_context
        )

csrf攻击进度

www.2527.com 1

1.用户C打开浏览器,访问受信任网址A,输入用户名和密码请求登6网址A;

二.在用户消息通过认证后,网址A产生Cookie新闻并赶回给浏览器,此时用户登6网址A成功,能够平常发送请求到网址A;

三.用户未脱离网址A在此以前,在一如之前浏览器中,展开一个TAB页访问网址B;

四.网址B接收到用户请求后,重临一些攻击性代码,并产生二个呼吁供给访问第1方站点A;

5.浏览器在接到到这一个攻击性代码后,依据网址B的央浼,在用户不知情的状态下引导Cookie音信,向网址A发出请求。网站A并不知道该请求其实是由B发起的,所以会凭借用户C的Cookie音讯以C的权柄管理该请求,导致来自网址B的恶意代码被实施。


.get_parsers(self)

Fielding将她对互连网软件的架构原则,定名称叫REST,即Representational State Transfer的缩写。笔者对这些短语的翻译是”表现层状态转化”。借使三个架构符合REST原则,就称它为RESTful架构。所以一句话来讲,RESTful是一种Web API设计标准,依照产品要求要求定出一份方便上下端的标准,由此不是全数的正规供给都急需遵照。

Django REST framework的各个本事——三.权力

下列属性决定API视图的可插入方面。

三.无名氏用户配置:

包装API视图(wrapping API views)

        REST framework提供了二种编写API view的包裹:

                (1)使用@api_view装饰器,基于方法的视图

                (二)承接APIView类,基于类的视图

       那么些视图封装,提供了略微的功力,比方:确定保证您的视图能够吸收接纳Request实例;还有,将内容予以Response对象,使得内容协商(content negotiation) 能够平常的运作。


from  rest_framework  import  status

from  rest_framework.decorators  import  api_view

from  rest_framework.response  import  Response

from  snippets.models  import  Snippet

from  snippets.serializers  import  SnippetSerializer

@api_view(['GET', 'POST’])

def  snippet_list(request):

        """

        列出富有的代码片段(snippets),或然成立2个代码片段(snippet)

        """

        if  request.method == 'GET':

                snippets = Snippet.objects.all()

                serializer = SnippetSerializer(snippets, many=True)

                return  Response (serializer.data)

        elif  request.method == 'POST':

                serializer = SnippetSerializer (data = request.data)

                if  serializer.is_valid():

                        serializer.save()

                        return  Response (serializer.data, status=status.HTTP_201_CREATED)

                return  Response (serializer.errors, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)


@api_view(['GET', 'PUT', 'DELETE’])

def  snippet_detail(request, pk):

        """

            读取, 更新 或 删除 3个代码片段实例(snippet instance)。

        """

        try:

                snippet = Snippet.objects.get (pk = pk)

        except  Snippet.DoesNotExist:

                return  Response (status = status.HTTP_404_NOT_FOUND)

        if  request.method == 'GET':

                serializer = SnippetSerializer (snippet)

                return  Response (serializer.data)

        elif  request.method == 'PUT':

                serializer = SnippetSerializer(snippet, data = request.data)

                if  serializer.is_valid():

                        serializer.save()

                        return  Response (serializer.data)

                return  Response (serializer.errors, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)

        elif  request.method == 'DELETE':

                snippet.delete()

                return  Response (status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)


        在此地,大家已经不再分明地,解析/定义视图中 Request/Response的故事情节类型。request.data会自行管理输入的json请求,当然,也能管理其余格式。一样的,大家只需重临响应对象以及数据,REST framework会帮大家,将响应内容,渲染(render)成准确的格式。    


@throttle_classes(...)

可选安装包:

Django REST framework教程三: 基于类的视图

        与其选取基于方法(function based)的视图,大家进一步倾向使用基于类(class based)的视图。

from  snippets.models  import  Snippet

from  snippets.serializers  import  SnippetSerializer

from  django.http  import  Http404

from  rest_framework.views  import  APIView

from  rest_framework.response  import  Response

from  rest_framework  import  status

class  SnippetList(APIView):

        """

        列出装有代码片段(snippets), 或许新建2个代码片段(snippet).

        """

        def  get (self, request, format=None):

                snippets = Snippet.objects.all()

                serializer = SnippetSerializer (snippets, many=True)

                return  Response (serializer.data)


        def  post (self, request, format=None):

                serializer = SnippetSerializer(data=request.data)

                if  serializer.is_valid():

                        serializer.save()

                        return  Response (serializer.data, status=status.HTTP_201_CREATED)

                return  Response  (serializer.errors, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)


class  SnippetDetail (APIView):

        """

        读取, 更新 or 删除一个代码片段(snippet)实例(instance).

        """

        def  get_object(self, pk):

                try:

                        return  Snippet.objects.get(pk=pk)

                except  Snippet.DoesNotExist:

                        raise  Http404


        def  get(self, request, pk, format=None):

                snippet = self.get_object(pk)

                serializer = SnippetSerializer(snippet)

                returnResponse(serializer.data)


        def  put(self, request, pk, format=None):

                snippet = self.get_object(pk)

                serializer = SnippetSerializer(snippet, data=request.data)

                if  serializer.is_valid():

                        serializer.save()

                        return  Response(serializer.data)

                returnResponse(serializer.errors, status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)


       def  delete(self, request, pk, format=None):

                snippet = self.get_object(pk)

                snippet.delete()

                return  Response(status=status.HTTP_204_NO_CONTENT)


urlpatterns = [

        url(r'^snippets/$', views.SnippetList.as_view()),

        url(r'^snippets/(?P[0-9] )/$', views.SnippetDetail.as_view()),

]

urlpatterns = format_suffix_patterns(urlpatterns)


管教传递给管理程序方法的请求对象是呼吁的叁个实例,而不是平时的HttpRequest。

二.表达配置:

大旨教学

        首先在django中,group以及user都能够有众多的permission,1个user会有他自己permission 全部附属group的permission。举例:user大概呈现的有二个permission,但他隶属于一个组,各种组有一个不等的权限,那么他有叁 二*3个权限。

        permission会在api的models.py种统1确立,在Meta中丰盛对应的permission然后跑migrate数据库就能有新的权限。

        由于django对每八个两样的Model都会创设多少个着力的权限,作者会在api/models.py里面独自行建造叁个ModulePermission的Model,未有其余别的属性,就只有多个Meta class下面前境遇应各样权力,那就是为了syncdb用的,其余还三个缘由前边再说。


近日大家的API在编写可能去除的时候从不任何限制,大家不希望多少人有高端的表现,确认保证:

(一)代码段始终与创作者相关联

(二)只允许授权的用户能够创立代码段

(叁)只同意代码段成立者能够立异和删除

(四)未有表明的伏乞应该有一个全部的只读权限列表


The following methods are called directly by the view's.dispatch()method. These perform any actions that need to occur before or after calling the handler methods such as.get(),.post(),put(),patch()and.delete().

class BaseAuthentication(object):
    """
    All authentication classes should extend BaseAuthentication.
    """

    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        Authenticate the request and return a two-tuple of (user, token).
        """
        raise NotImplementedError(".authenticate() must be overridden.")

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        """
        Return a string to be used as the value of the `WWW-Authenticate`
        header in a `401 Unauthenticated` response, or `None` if the
        authentication scheme should return `403 Permission Denied` responses.
        """
        pass

动用基于泛类(generic class)的视图

        REST framework提供了一套已经实现了混入类的通用(generic)视图,大家得以使大家的views.py模块,尤其减脂!

from  snippets.models  import  Snippet

from  snippets.serializers  import  SnippetSerializer

from  rest_framework  import  generics

class  SnippetList(generics.ListCreateAPIView):

        queryset = Snippet.objects.all()

        serializer_class = SnippetSerializer

class  SnippetDetail(generics.RetrieveUpdateDestroyAPIView):

        queryset = Snippet.objects.all()

        serializer_class = SnippetSerializer


.throttle_classes

10.在self.inital方法中会推行self.perform_authentication方法,而self.perform_authentication方法用会执行request.user,此时的request是Request对象,所以需深入分析Request类中的user属性,以下是Request部分类源码:

原理

在客户端页面上增添csrftoken, 服务器端举办表达,服务器端验证的做事经过'django.middleware.csrf.CsrfViewMiddleware'这些当中层来变成。在django个中守护csrf攻击的章程有二种, 1.在表单在那之中附加csrftoken 2.通过request请求中增多X-CSLANDFToken请求头。注意:Django私下认可对具备的POST请求都开始展览csrftoken验证,若验证退步则40三错误侍候。

Return a list of all users.

11.从上源码深入分析,在Request对象中,user属性是2脾品质方法,并会举办self._authentication方法,在雄起雌伏看Request对象的self._authentication方法:

请求对象(Request object)

        REST framework引进了几个Request对象, 它两次三番自普通的HttpRequest, 但能够更加灵活的深入分析收到的央浼。Request对象的骨干职能,正是内部的request.data属性。这几个特性跟request.POST相似,但对大家的Web API来讲,越来越管用。

        request.POST     # 只可以处理表单(form)数据,只好管理“POST”方法. 

        request.data       # 管理任意数据.能够管理'POST', 'PUT' 和 'PATCH'方法.

Class-based Views

二、安装配置

为我们user models添加serializers

from  django.contrib.auth.models  import  User

class  UserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):

        snippets =serializers.PrimaryKeyRelatedField(many=True,queryset=Snippet.objects.all())

        class  Meta:

                model = User

                fields = ('id','username','snippets’)

        因为'snippets'是User模型上的反向关系,所以在运用ModelSerializer类时,它不会被暗中认可包括,因而大家供给为它增加两个显式字段。        


from  django.contrib.auth.models  import  User

from  snippets.serializers  import  UserSerializer

class  UserList(generics.ListAPIView): 

         queryset =User.objects.all() 

         serializer_class =UserSerializer

class  UserDetail(generics.RetrieveAPIView): 

         queryset =User.objects.all() 

         serializer_class =UserSerializer


以下的法子是由视图中一贯调用。dispatch()方法。那个实践此外操作,须求发出之前或调用管理办法之后,举个例子.get(),.post(),put(),patch()

认证url(urls.py)

在django防御csrf攻击

The available decorators are:

def _not_authenticated(self):
        """
        Set authenticator, user & authtoken representing an unauthenticated request.

        Defaults are None, AnonymousUser & None.
        """
        self._authenticator = None

        if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER:
            self.user = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER()   #匿名用户配置,默认返回AnonymousUser
        else:
            self.user = None

        if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN:
            self.auth = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN()  #None
        else:
            self.auth = None

使用混入(mixins)

        方今截止,大家所用的增加和删除改查操作,在我们缔造的,任何协理模型的视图里,都尚未太大差异。那几个通用的作为,在REST framework的混入(mixin)类中,都已经实现(implemented)了。

from  snippets.models  import  Snippet

from  snippets.serializers  import  SnippetSerializer

from  rest_framework  import  mixins

from  rest_framework  import  generics

class  SnippetList(mixins.ListModelMixin,mixins.CreateModelMixin,

                                    generics.GenericAPIView):

        queryset = Snippet.objects.all()

        serializer_class = SnippetSerializer

        def  get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

                return  self.list(request, *args, **kwargs)

        def  post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

                return  self.create(request, *args, **kwargs)

        大家应用GenericAPIView创立了小编们的视图,并且出席了ListModelMixin和CreateModelMixin

        基本类提供了主导的效应,而混入(mixin)类提供了.list()和.create()行为。然后,大家显式地在get和post方法里面,放入对应的行路。特别简单,但近些日子够用。


  class  SnippetDetail(mixins.RetrieveModelMixin,mixins.UpdateModelMixin,

                    mixins.DestroyModelMixin,

                                        generics.GenericAPIView):

        queryset = Snippet.objects.all()

        serializer_class = SnippetSerializer

        def  get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

                return  self.retrieve(request, *args, **kwargs)

        def  put(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

                return  self.update(request, *args, **kwargs)

        def  delete(self, request, *args, **kwargs):

                return  self.destroy(request, *args, **kwargs)

        大家利用了GenericAPIView类提供了宗旨职能,而混入(mixin)类 提供了.retrieve(),.update()和.destroy()行为。


REST framework also allows you to work with regular function based views. It provides a set of simple decorators that wrap your function based views to ensure they receive an instance ofRequest(rather than the usual DjangoHttpRequest) and allows them to return aResponse(instead of a DjangoHttpResponse), and allow you to configure how the request is processed.

继承BaseAuthentication,重写authenticate方法和authenticate_header(pass就足以),authenticate()方法必要有两种情景(重临元祖、出现非常、再次来到none)。

取消csrftoken验证

通过csrf_exempt, 来打消csrftoken验证,方式有二种。

在视图函数个中增添csrf_exempt装饰器


GET, POST, PUT, DELETE 正好能够对应大家 CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) 各样多少操作

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Saying [that class-based views] is always the superior solution is a mistake.

贰.无需csrf验证方法:

Django REST framework教程二: 请求和响应

若果急需自定义API再次回到的荒唐响应,则应将该措施的子类化为子类。

1.BaseAuthentication

为U汉兰达Ls增加可选的格式后缀

        今后,我们的响应,不再硬性绑定在,某一种回到格式上,利用那点优势,大家得认为API端,增添格式的后缀。使用格式后缀,能够定制大家的UXC60Ls,使它显然的针对钦定的格式,那代表,我们的API能够拍卖部分U哈弗Ls,类似那样的格式        

        首先,须求丰盛一个format关键字参数,如下所示:    

                def  snippet_list (request, format=None):

        然后对urls.py文件,做些修改:

        from  rest_framework.urlpatterns  import  format_suffix_patterns

        urlpatterns = format_suffix_patterns(urlpatterns)    


The default implementation handles any subclass ofrest_framework.exceptions.APIException, as well as Django'sHttp404andPermissionDeniedexceptions, and returns an appropriate error response.

  • coreapi(一.32.0 ) – 扶助方式调换。
  • Markdown(二.壹.0 ) – 马克down帮忙可浏览的API。
  • django-filter(1.0.一 ) – 过滤帮忙。
  • django-crispy-forms – 革新的HTML显示过滤。
  • django-guardian(一.一.壹 ) – 帮忙对象级其余权限决定。

Django: csrf堤防机制

这种暗中同意只适用于GET方法,别的方法将回来"405 Method Not Allowed",若要改换此行为,请钦定视图允许的不②诀窍,比方:

@classmethod
    def as_view(cls, **initkwargs):
        """
        Store the original class on the view function.

        This allows us to discover information about the view when we do URL
        reverse lookups.  Used for breadcrumb generation.
        """
        if isinstance(getattr(cls, 'queryset', None), models.query.QuerySet):
            def force_evaluation():
                raise RuntimeError(
                    'Do not evaluate the `.queryset` attribute directly, '
                    'as the result will be cached and reused between requests. '
                    'Use `.all()` or call `.get_queryset()` instead.'
                )
            cls.queryset._fetch_all = force_evaluation

        view = super(APIView, cls).as_view(**initkwargs)   #执行父类as_view()方法
        view.cls = cls
        view.initkwargs = initkwargs

        # Note: session based authentication is explicitly CSRF validated,
        # all other authentication is CSRF exempt.
        return csrf_exempt(view)

1呼百应对象(Response object)

        REST framework 同时引进了Response对象,是①种TemplateResponse,它引导着纯粹的源委,通过内容协商(Content Negotiation)来支配,将以何种格局,重临给客户端。

        return Response(data)    #基于客户端的要求,把内容,生成对应的样式。


For example:

  • Python(2.7,3.2,3.3,3.4,3.5,3.6)
  • Django(1.10,1.11,2.0 alpha)

在views中丰裕请求权限

        以后snippets 已经和大家的用户关联上了,我们要求保障单独通过验证的用户能够增加和删除改

REST framework 蕴含有一部分权限类,我们得以用来界定何人能够访问给定的视图,在这种情景下,首先大家寻觅IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnl,那将保证已证实的请求得到读写访问权限,并且未认证的乞求获得只读访问权限。

然后在SnippetList和SnippetDetailview中增加上边那天性情

        permission_classes = (permissions.IsAuthenticatedOrReadOnly,)


.authentication_classes

##路径:rest_framework.authentication

BasicAuthentication  #基于浏览器进行认证
SessionAuthentication #基于django的session进行认证
RemoteUserAuthentication #基于django admin中的用户进行认证,这也是官网的示例
TokenAuthentication #基于drf内部的token认证

革新大家的seralizer

        今后sippets创制的时候已经和大家的用户关联起来,让大家创新大家的SnippetSerializer,增添以下定义的字段:

        owner= serializers.ReadOnlyField(source='owner.username’)

        source参数用于调节极其属性被用来填充字段,并且能够针对类别化实例上的其余性质。 它也足以应用地点所示的虚线符号,在这种情况下,它将遍历给定的性质,与应用Django的沙盘语言类似的点子。

        大家抬高的字段是无类型的ReadOnlyField类,与其他类别的字段,举个例子CharField,BooleanField等相反。无类型的ReadOnlyField总是只读的,并且将用以种类化表示,但不会 用于在反系列化时更新模型实例。 大家也得以在这里运用CharField(read_only = True)

        同时须求在meta class中增加owner字段

        class  Meta:

                model = Snippet        

                fields = ('id','title','code','linenos','language','style','owner')


在管理格局调用在此以前实行此外部要求要发出的操作。此方法用于强制权限和节流,并施行内容协商。

#全局认证
REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    "DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES":['API.utils.auth.Authentication',]
}

#局部认证
authentication_classes = [BaseAuthentication,]

#是某个视图不进行认证
authentication_classes =[]

Signature:@api_view(http_method_names=['GET'], exclude_from_schema=False)

二.任何认证类

API policy attributes

安装:

The core of this functionality is theapi_viewdecorator, which takes a list of HTTP methods that your view should respond to. For example, this is how you would write a very simple view that just manually returns some data:

一3.当都尚未重返值,就试行self._not_authenticated(),相当于佚名用户,未有通过验证,并且此时django会重返暗许的佚名用户设置AnonymousUser,如供给单独设置佚名用户重临值,则编写必要写UNAUTHENTICATED_USE猎豹CS6的重临值:

Handler方法能够回去REST框架的响应,而不是Django的HttpResponse。视图将管理内容协商和响应设置科学的渲染器。

Django REST Framework(简称D大切诺基F),是贰个用以营造Web API的精锐且灵活的工具包。

Ensures that anyResponseobject returned from the handler method will be rendered into the correct content type, as determined by the content negotiation.

from django.db import models

class UserInfo(models.Model):
    user_type_choice = (
        (1,"普通用户"),
        (2,"会员"),
    )
    user_type = models.IntegerField(choices=user_type_choice)
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32,unique=True)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64)


class UserToken(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField(to=UserInfo)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=64)

—Nick Coghlan

局地有些视图不要求表达,则在视图类中参预authentication_classes=[]

fromrest_framework.decoratorsimportapi_view,throttle_classesfromrest_framework.throttlingimportUserRateThrottleclassOncePerDayUserThrottle(UserRateThrottle):rate='1/day'@api_view(['GET'])@throttle_classes([OncePerDayUserThrottle])defview(request):returnResponse({"message":"Hello for today! See you tomorrow!"})

from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse
from django.views.decorators.csrf import csrf_exempt,csrf_protect
from django.utils.decorators import method_decorator
from django.views import View


@method_decorator(csrf_exempt,name='dispatch')##name参数指定是dispatch方法
class Myview(View):

    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return super(Myview,self).dispatch(request,*args,**kwargs)
    def get(self):
        return HttpResponse('get')

    def post(self):
        return HttpResponse('post')

    def put(self):
        return HttpResponse('put')

Handler methods may return REST framework'sResponse, instead of Django'sHttpResponse. The view will manage content negotiation and setting the correct renderer on the response.

models.py

fromrest_framework.decoratorsimportapi_view@api_view()defhello_world(request):returnResponse({"message":"Hello, world!"})

REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    "DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES":['API.utils.auth.Authentication',],  #其中写认证的类的路径,不要在views中,这里我放在了utils目录下auth.py中
    "UNAUTHENTICATED_USER": lambda:"匿名",#匿名用户配置,只需要函数或类的对应的返回值,对应request.user="匿名"
"UNAUTHENTICATED_token": None,#匿名token,只需要函数或类的对应的返回值,对应request.auth=None


}

@renderer_classes(...)

authentication_classes = []    #authentication_classes为空,代表不需要认证

.get_content_negotiator(self)

cbv:

Any exception thrown by the handler method will be passed to this method, which either returns aResponseinstance, or re-raises the exception.

  pip install djangorestframework
  pip install markdown       # Markdown support for the browsable API.
  pip install django-filter  # Filtering support

.initialize_request(self, request, *args, **kwargs)

六、配置认证类

Performs any actions that need to occur before the handler method gets called. This method is used to enforce permissions and throttling, and perform content negotiation.

叁.源码流程:

You can also mark an API view as being omitted from anyauto-generated schema, using theexclude_from_schemaargument.:

###方式一
from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse
from django.views.decorators.csrf import csrf_exempt,csrf_protect
from django.utils.decorators import method_decorator
from django.views import View

class Myview(View):
    @method_decorator(csrf_exempt)    #必须将装饰器写在dispatch上,单独加不生效
    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return super(Myview,self).dispatch(request,*args,**kwargs)
    def get(self):
        return HttpResponse('get')

    def post(self):
        return HttpResponse('post')

    def put(self):
        return HttpResponse('put')

.content_negotiation_class

中间引用了django,settings.py中的REST_FRAMEWO瑞鹰K作为key作为配置,所以全局配置示范:

API policy instantiation methods

通过证实的源码流程分析,D福睿斯F的证实全局配置在api_setting中,以下是api_setings部分源码:

处理措施抛出的别的非凡都将传递给该情势,该格局再次来到响应实例,或另行掀起那个。

from django.conf.urls import url
from django.contrib import admin
from app01 import views

urlpatterns = [

    url(r'^api/v1/auth', views.AuthView.as_view()),
    url(r'^api/v1/order', views.OrderView.as_view()),
]

@permission_classes(...)

用户使用token访问,不带token或token错误会注明错误。

REST framework provides anAPIViewclass, which subclasses Django'sViewclass.

http://127.0.0.1:8000/api/v1/order?token=63743076dfaefa632f6acb302cf90400

###返回结果
{"code": 1000, "msg": "u4f60u7684u8ba2u5355u5df2u7ecfu5b8cu6210", "data": "u4e70u4e86u4e00u4e2amac"}

.get_renderers(self)

www.2527.com,贰.在地点的言传身教中,使用django rest framework中的视图类要求后续APIView,请求达到视图类会实践视图类的as_view方法,而OrderView中没有as_view()方法,所以进行APIView的as_view()方法,上面请看APIView类中的as_view()源码:

API policy decorators

八、总结

保证从管理程序方法再次来到的其他响应对象将被突显为科学的剧情类型,由内容协商鲜明。

from django.views.decorators.csrf import csrf_exempt

@csrf_exempt
def index(request):
    pass

APIViewclasses are different from regularViewclasses in the following ways:

    def initial(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Runs anything that needs to occur prior to calling the method handler.
        """
        self.format_kwarg = self.get_format_suffix(**kwargs)

        # Perform content negotiation and store the accepted info on the request
        neg = self.perform_content_negotiation(request)
        request.accepted_renderer, request.accepted_media_type = neg

        # Determine the API version, if versioning is in use.
        version, scheme = self.determine_version(request, *args, **kwargs)
        request.version, request.versioning_scheme = version, scheme

        # Ensure that the incoming request is permitted
        self.perform_authentication(request)  #实现认证
        self.check_permissions(request)
        self.check_throttles(request)

.permission_classes

四.从上源码能够见见View类的as_view()方法实践流程:验证请求方法--->重返view函数名称(view函数会实行dispatch方法),一旦有请求进入实行view函数-->实践dispatch方法

You won't typically need to override this method.

一.验证全局配置文件

.get_permissions(self)

设置供给:

.check_throttles(self, request)

BaseAuthentication是django rest framework为我们提供了最宗旨的印证类,正如源码流程一样,该类中当中定义的五个方法authenticate和authenticate_header(认证失利重回的响应头),使用时候重写该七个法子开始展览表达,正如示例:

View to list all users in the system.

5.当APIView的as_view方法试行了父类的as_view方法今后,请求进入会实施view方法,view方法中会实践dispatch方法,而Oderview未有dispatch方法,所以进行父类(APIView)的dispatch方法,下边的APIView的dispatch()方法源码:

"""authentication_classes=(authentication.TokenAuthentication,)permission_classes=(permissions.IsAdminUser,)defget(self,request,format=None):"""

依照中间件的process_view方法完结对请求的csrf_token验证

APIView类分化于普通视图类在以下方面:

 

盛传的央求在运转以前将被表明,并将方便的权能或节流检查后发送随管理程序的主意。

    def _authenticate(self):
        """
        Attempt to authenticate the request using each authentication instance
        in turn.
        """
        for authenticator in self.authenticators:
            try:

          #执行认证类的authenticate方法
                #这里分三种情况
                #1.如果authenticate方法抛出异常,self._not_authenticated()执行
                #2.有返回值,必须是元组:(request.user,request.auth)
                #3.返回None,表示当前认证不处理,等下一个认证来处理

                user_auth_tuple = authenticator.authenticate(self)
            except exceptions.APIException:
                self._not_authenticated()
                raise

            if user_auth_tuple is not None:
                self._authenticator = authenticator
                self.user, self.auth = user_auth_tuple  #返回值对应示例中的token_obj.user和token_obj
                return

        self._not_authenticated()

Incoming requests will be authenticated and appropriate permission and/or throttle checks will be run before dispatching the request to the handler method.

一、简介

You won't typically need to override this method.

1四.所以经过以上深入分析,我们须求开始展览表明时候,须要在每一个表明类中定义authenticate实行求证,并且要求回到元祖。

Ensures that the request object that is passed to the handler method is an instance ofRequest, rather than the usual DjangoHttpRequest.

 

These decorators correspond to the attributes set onAPIViewsubclasses, described above.

 

—Reinout van Rees

七、内置认证类

* Requires token authentication.

陆.从上述源码解析,推行APIView的dispatch方法时候会实行self.initialize_request方法,会对django原始的request进行打包。再看看initialize_request源码封装的内容,以下是self.initialize_request()源码:

.parser_classes

三、知识预备

The following attributes control the pluggable aspects of API views.

方式一:

透过对拍卖方式供给将REST框架的渴求的场馆下,不是Django的HttpRequest实例。

五、认证过程源码剖析

此功用的基本是api_view装饰,以2个列表的HTTP方法视图应该应对。举个例子,您将怎么着编写三个极度轻巧的视图,该视图只手动再次来到一些数量:

    def as_view(cls, **initkwargs):
        """
        Main entry point for a request-response process.
        """
        for key in initkwargs:
            if key in cls.http_method_names:
                raise TypeError("You tried to pass in the %s method name as a "
                                "keyword argument to %s(). Don't do that."
                                % (key, cls.__name__))
            if not hasattr(cls, key):
                raise TypeError("%s() received an invalid keyword %r. as_view "
                                "only accepts arguments that are already "
                                "attributes of the class." % (cls.__name__, key))

        def view(request, *args, **kwargs):
            self = cls(**initkwargs)
            if hasattr(self, 'get') and not hasattr(self, 'head'):
                self.head = self.get
            self.request = request
            self.args = args
            self.kwargs = kwargs
            return self.dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)
        view.view_class = cls
        view.view_initkwargs = initkwargs

        # take name and docstring from class
        update_wrapper(view, cls, updated=())

        # and possible attributes set by decorators
        # like csrf_exempt from dispatch
        update_wrapper(view, cls.dispatch, assigned=())
        return view

@api_view()

在起来介绍Django REST Framework在此以前供给领会下django的路由系统以及csrf中间件。

其余APIException非常将被介导的恰到好处的影响。

from django.shortcuts import  HttpResponse
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from rest_framework.authentication import BaseAuthentication
from . import models
from rest_framework import exceptions
import hashlib
import time


class Authentication(BaseAuthentication):
    """
    认证类
    """

    def authenticate(self, request):
        token = request._request.GET.get("token")
        toke_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not toke_obj:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed("用户认证失败")
        return (toke_obj.user, toke_obj)  # 这里返回值一次给request.user,request.auth

    def authenticate_header(self, val):
        pass


def md5(user):
    ctime = str(time.time())
    m = hashlib.md5(bytes(user,encoding="utf-8"))
    m.update(bytes(ctime,encoding="utf-8"))
    return m.hexdigest()

class AuthView(APIView):
    """登陆认证"""
    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return super(AuthView, self).dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)

    def get(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        return HttpResponse('get')

    def post(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        ret = {'code': 1000, 'msg': "登录成功"}
        try:
            user = request._request.POST.get("username")
            pwd = request._request.POST.get("password")
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user, password=pwd).first()
            if not obj:
                ret['code'] = 1001
                ret['msg'] = "用户名或密码错误"
            else:
                token = md5(user)
                models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj, defaults={"token": token})
                ret['token'] = token

        except Exception as e:
            ret['code'] = 1002
            ret['msg'] = "请求异常"

        return JsonResponse(ret)



class OrderView(APIView):
    '''查看订单'''

    authentication_classes = [Authentication,]    #添加认证
    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        #request.user
        #request.auth
        ret = {'code':1000,'msg':"你的订单已经完成",'data':"买了一个mac"}
        return JsonResponse(ret,safe=True)

.get_throttles(self)

1二.从上源码深入分析,Request对象的self._authentication中循环self.authenticators(该列表是由认证对象构成的[对象1,对象2]),并施行每四个对象中的authenticate方法重回tuple,同时对该进度其进展了非常捕捉,有极其将赶回给用户,上面是可怜验证逻辑:

The following methods are called before dispatching to the handler method.

api_settings = APISettings(None, DEFAULTS, IMPORT_STRINGS)


def reload_api_settings(*args, **kwargs):
    setting = kwargs['setting']
    if setting == 'REST_FRAMEWORK':  #项目中settings.py的key
        api_settings.reload()


setting_changed.connect(reload_api_settings)

这种视图将动用暗中同意的renderers, parsers, authentication等类的设置钦定

 

.initial(self, request, *args, **kwargs)

四、简单认证示例

.get_authenticators(self)

方式二:

在散发给管理程序方法在此之前调用以下办法。

class Request(object):
    """
    Wrapper allowing to enhance a standard `HttpRequest` instance.

    Kwargs:
        - request(HttpRequest). The original request instance.
        - parsers_classes(list/tuple). The parsers to use for parsing the
          request content.
        - authentication_classes(list/tuple). The authentications used to try
          authenticating the request's user.
    """

    def __init__(self, request, parsers=None, authenticators=None,
                 negotiator=None, parser_context=None):
        assert isinstance(request, HttpRequest), (
            'The `request` argument must be an instance of '
            '`django.http.HttpRequest`, not `{}.{}`.'
            .format(request.__class__.__module__, request.__class__.__name__)
        )

        self._request = request      #django原生的request封装为_request
        self.parsers = parsers or ()
        self.authenticators = authenticators or ()
        self.negotiator = negotiator or self._default_negotiator()
        self.parser_context = parser_context
        self._data = Empty
        self._files = Empty
        self._full_data = Empty
        self._content_type = Empty
        self._stream = Empty

  ####
    @property
    def user(self):
        """
        Returns the user associated with the current request, as authenticated
        by the authentication classes provided to the request.
        """
        if not hasattr(self, '_user'):
            with wrap_attributeerrors():
                self._authenticate() #下hi ing
        return self._user

.check_permissions(self, request)

 玖.继续分析APIView的dispatch方法,此时实行self.inital方法,并将包裹过后的request对象(Reuqest)作为参数实行传递,上边是self.inital()方法源码:

采纳APIView类是相当日常使用的视图类,传入的恳求被分派到三个分外的管理措施,譬如.get()or.post()。别的,能够在支配API计谋的各样方面包车型大巴类上设置若干品质。

先说说REST:REST是一种Web API设计规范,是时下相比较成熟的1套网络应用程序的API设计理论。REST那一个词,是Roy Thomas Fielding在他2000年的大学生杂文中提议的。Fielding是一个不胜首要的人,他是HTTP协议(1.0版和一.一版)的要紧设计者、Apache服务器软件的我之1、Apache基金会的首先任主持人。所以,他的那篇故事集一经见报,就挑起了关切,并且立时对互连网支付爆发了浓密的影响。

* Only admin users are able to access this view.

三.从以上源码中得以看出APIView中as_view又进行了父类的as_view方法,在看望APIView的父类是View类,那正好是django中的view视图类,以下是View类中的as_view()的源码:

.finalize_response(self, request, response, *args, **kwargs)

  • 假使有丰硕则施行self._not_authenticated()方法,继续进步抛格外。

  • 就算有重返值必须是三个元组,分别赋值给self.user, self.auth(request.user和request.auth),并跳出循环。

  • 要是回去None,则由下2个循环往复处理,借使都为None,则举办self._not_authenticated(),返回 (AnonymousUser,None)

.handle_exception(self, exc)

情况:用户查看本人购置的订单,需登录验证

Function Based Views

二.部分使用

@authentication_classes(...)

对此上述demo大概会十分为何加多了authentication_classes认证类列表就可以使用大家本身定义的印证类,上边从源码角度分析

为了掩盖暗许设置,REST框架提供了壹套额外的装裱能够被增多到你视图里。这一个必须通过@api_view装饰。举例,成立二个视图,使用风门确定保障它只好由特定用户每一日叁次,使用@throttle_classes装饰,通过节流阀类的列表:

#全局认证配置
REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    "DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES":['API.utils.auth.Authentication',]   #其中写认证的类的路径,不要在views中,这里我放在了utils目录下auth.py中
}

@api_view(['GET','POST'])defhello_world(request):ifrequest.method=='POST':returnResponse({"message":"Got some data!","data":request.data})returnResponse({"message":"Hello, world!"})

学习RESTful API的资料:RESTful API 设计指南、理解RESTful架构

@parser_classes(...)

7.self.initialize_request()源码解析,实例化Request()类,封装原始的request,authenticators(认证),实践self.get_authenticators(),到了此地就起来django rest framework的证实流程,以下是self.get_authenticators()源码:

Each of these decorators takes a single argument which must be a list or tuple of classes.

    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        `.dispatch()` is pretty much the same as Django's regular dispatch,
        but with extra hooks for startup, finalize, and exception handling.
        """
        self.args = args
        self.kwargs = kwargs
        request = self.initialize_request(request, *args, **kwargs)  #对django原始的request进行封装,返回Request对象(新的对象)。
        self.request = request
        self.headers = self.default_response_headers  # deprecate?

        try:
            self.initial(request, *args, **kwargs)  #这里request参数实则是Request对象

            # Get the appropriate handler method
            if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
                handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(),
                                  self.http_method_not_allowed)
            else:
                handler = self.http_method_not_allowed

            response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

        except Exception as exc:
            response = self.handle_exception(exc)

        self.response = self.finalize_response(request, response, *args, **kwargs)
        return self.response

.renderer_classes

views.py

.perform_content_negotiation(self, request, force=False)

以下是demo:

You won't typically need to override this method.

class APIView(View):

    # The following policies may be set at either globally, or per-view.
    renderer_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_RENDERER_CLASSES
    parser_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_PARSER_CLASSES
    authentication_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES  #默认认证配置
    throttle_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_THROTTLE_CLASSES
    permission_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_PERMISSION_CLASSES
    content_negotiation_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_CONTENT_NEGOTIATION_CLASS
    metadata_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_METADATA_CLASS
    versioning_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_VERSIONING_CLASS

@api_view(['GET'],exclude_from_schema=True)defapi_docs(request):...

一.自定义认证类:

暗中认可的兑现拍卖的别样子类rest_framework.exceptions.apiexception,像Django的Http40④和PermissionDenied例外,并重临适当的一无所长响应。

1.先从呼吁说到,大家都晓得在django(CBV)中,客户端的发来的请求会奉行视图类的as_view方法,而as_view方法中会实践dispacth方法,然后在依据请求的品种实行相应的措施(get、post等)。

REST框架允许你使用基刘恒则函数的视图。它提供了1套简单的装潢,把你的效率观确定保障他们承受请求的实例(而不是惯常的Django HttpRequest)并允许他们回来响应(而不是三个Django HttpResponse),并同意你陈设哪些管理请求。

By default onlyGETmethods will be accepted. Other methods will respond with "405 Method Not Allowed". To alter this behaviour, specify which methods the view allows, like so:

To override the default settings, REST framework provides a set of additional decorators which can be added to your views. These must comeafter(below) the@api_viewdecorator. For example, to create a view that uses athrottleto ensure it can only be called once per day by a particular user, use the@throttle_classesdecorator, passing a list of throttle classes:

fromrest_framework.viewsimportAPIViewfromrest_framework.responseimportResponsefromrest_frameworkimportauthentication,permissionsclassListUsers(APIView):"""

This view will use the default renderers, parsers, authentication classes etc specified in thesettings.

API policy implementation methods

"""usernames=[user.usernameforuserinUser.objects.all()]returnResponse(usernames)

REST框架提供了二个apiview类,那类是Django视图类。

The following methods are used by REST framework to instantiate the various pluggable API policies. You won't typically need to override these methods.

.get_exception_handler(self)

Django's class-based views are a welcome departure from the old-style views.

您也得以标志二个API视图是从任何自动生成的架构略,使用exclude_from_schema。

Using theAPIViewclass is pretty much the same as using a regularViewclass, as usual, the incoming request is dispatched to an appropriate handler method such as.get()or.post(). Additionally, a number of attributes may be set on the class that control various aspects of the API policy.

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